Image for post
Image for post
F.W. de Klerk shakes hands with Nelson Mandela. The two men made history by ending apartheid. Image courtesy: Wikimedia

Abstract:
This paper examines key differences between South Africa’s intelligence services during the implementation of apartheid by the Afrikaner National Party in 1948, and after the democratic transition led by the African National Congress in 1994. It focuses on key differences in the intelligence agenda of two different governments: one whose aim was geared towards preserving a white minority rule, while the post-Apartheid government focused on moving towards a path of majority representation within the framework of a multi-racial democracy.

Post-apartheid, this paper highlights the new objectives and frameworks which were created for the reform of the nation’s intelligence services.


Image for post
Image for post
Photo Credit: Author

“Aspiration for power is the distinguishing element of all politics, and hence of international politics. International politics is of necessity power politics.”

Hans Morgenthau,
Politics Among Nations, 1948

Gathering intelligence doesn’t simply combine different forms of disciplines and experiences to analyze and assist in the decision making process of a nation state, private corporation or even a criminal organization. There are several steps involved in the intelligence cycle which are assisted by an intricate array of collection disciplines, including IMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, HUMINT, FININT and sometimes, even RUMINT. …


Image for post
Image for post
Photo Credit: Author

Although largely understudied because of its secretive nature, covert action is often used as a policy tool. It is an arm of state power which like diplomacy and military power can be used to assist actors in shaping reality.

As much as it has been in the public eye of late, covert action isn’t limited to modern western democracies, but has been around since the formation of early states and societies where it was employed as a common tool of statecraft. Ancient Romans used clandestine operations, covert action, political assassinations and paramilitary operations as a regular part of their foreign…


Image for post
Image for post
Srinagar, Kashmir 2014. India. Photographed by the Author.

Introduction

This article examines the relationship between India and Pakistan regarding the issue of Kashmir. It suggests that the construction of these three entities was primarily facilitated by local dynamics and political forces working under the umbrella of the former British colonial empire. It reflects on the post-independence grievances and argues that these continue to be endured by several groups without being limited to one single group over the other. …


Image for post
Image for post
Tech Titans Appear for a Remote Hearing, July 29th, 2020

During a live hearing conducted before the House Judiciary Committee on Wednesday July 29th , four of the world’s most powerful tech titans testified at an antitrust hearing titled: ‘Online Platforms and Market Power: Examining the Dominance of Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google.’

In a session which lasted for five and a half hours, members of the United States’ Congress asked the four CEO’s grueling questions which echoed many concerns which the public has been vocal about over the past several years. …


Image for post
Image for post
Type 6 Bungalow: built during early 1900’s. Lucknow, India. Photograph by the Author.

The term ‘development’ refers to the self-sustained economic growth of a country or an institution. The process is usually determined by observing improvements in the living standards of a population as a whole. Ideally, economic development should influence peace, lead towards security and facilitate international co-existence. Broadly defined and according to several developmental theorists, economic development can lead to poverty eradication and prosperity for societies.

Today, most of the world’s impoverished nations are identified in an area defined as the global South where a large percentage of extreme poverty trends are displayed. To overcome these poverty trends, several international governance…


by Alexander Klimburg

Image for post
Image for post
Image Courtesy: Author

Did you know that in order to guard China’s cyberspace known as the Great Chinese Firewall, more people are employed manning it than are currently serving in the People’s Liberation Army, the largest military on earth? Or, that software code can be much more complex than some forms of life?

For those of us who would like to grasp the “cyberspace beast” by its horns, along with the technical realities and policy solutions which form the construct of the cyber realm, Dr. Alexander Klimburg’s book, ‘The Darkening Web: the War for Cyberspace’ (Penguin, 2017), is an essential…


“Non-State Armed Groups and Stability: Reconsidering Legitimacy and Inclusion” | by Sukanya Poddar, 2013

Image for post
Image for post
The Grand Mosque in the Village of Munarrah. Dedicated by the Mukashfi Order. Sudan. 2018. Photograph by the Author.

What is a Non State Armed Group? Although various definitions exist, The International Council on Human Rights Policy suggests that as a broad umbrella term it can include groups that ‘are armed and use force to achieve their objectives and are not under state control.’ Recent International Relations (IR) and security literature has advocated the inclusion of criminal gangs, mercenaries, private security contractors, and terrorists as well.

In ‘Non-State Armed Groups and Stability: Reconsidering Legitimacy and Inclusion,’ Sukanya Poddar defines ‘NSAGs’ as groups that possess a hierarchical organization, use violence for political ends, are independent from state control, and have…


International Organizations, Global Governance and the Role of Neoliberal Institutions in the Promotion of Postmodern Imperialism

Image for post
Image for post
Raed Saleh, lead organizer of the The White Helmets group, speaks at a panel discussion hosted by The Independent Diplomat in New York. Moderated by Ken Roth, Executive Director, Human Rights Watch. September 2016. Photo by Miss Singh

Abstract: This article considers the dynamics between international organizations and civil society groups which can be utilized by global actors to create new or parallel systems of governance. Spheres of authority related to broad-gauged advocacy networks, special interest organizations, informal systems, corporations and NGO’s may be exploited by actors to influence action and coerce compliance from organizations, groups and governments. …

Miss Singh

International Affairs • Cyber • Diplomacy • Statecraft • dedicated Biryani Lover • Polyglot • a Private Citizen • Cosmopolitan •

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store